Computer Networks



Quotes from Tanenbaum & Whetherall book

  • "No combination of old segments ... can cause the protocol to fail and have a connection set up by accident..."

  • "Different network layers may return different kinds of feedback. The feedback may be explicit or implicit, and it may be precise or imprecise."

  • "An internetwork differs from a single network because different parts may have wildly different topologies, bandwidths, delays, packet sizes, and other parameters."

  • Consider a connection to a remote terminal, for example using SSH or telnet, that reacts on every keystroke. In the worst case, whenever a character arrives at the sending TCP entity, TCP creates a 21-byte TCP segment, which it gives to IP to send as a 41-byte IP datagram. At the receiving side, TCP immediately sends a 40-byte acknowledgement (20 bytes of TCP header and 20 bytes of IP header). Later, when the remote terminal has read the byte, TCP sends a window update, moving the window 1 byte to the right. This packet is also 40 bytes. Finally, when the remote terminal has processed the character, it echoes the character for local display using a 41-byte packet. In all, 162 bytes of bandwidth are used and four segments are sent for each character typed. When bandwidth is scarce, this method of doing business is not desirable.